Paper is the important carrirer in culture record and disseminate,when in not technogy developed period,the history is through the paper to record,As a country with thousands of years of history, our country still has a large number of paper cultural . Whether it is important historical and cultural materials of our country, or works of art with great ornamental value such as calligraphy and painting, they are all part of our national spiritual culture. A sign of foundation and wisdom. However, paper is easy to damage, how to protect and prolong their life is a problem we must be face.
Factors that damage paper
Before protecting paper heritage, we must first understand what factors pose a threat to it in order to prescribe the right remedy, the following are some of the main factors that can damage paper heritage:
1.Insect damage. This is the most common and unavoidable scourge that damages paper heritage. As well as feeding on the paper itself, pests lay eggs on the paper and the hatchlings chew up the paper, further damaging it. Some pests also excrete coloured dirt and their carcasses can be a source of nutrients for certain bacteria, making the preservation of paper artefacts even more difficult.
2.Mould damage. The main component of paper is cellulose, as well as a small amount of lignin, hemicellulose, etc., and paper relics repaired with glue also contain starch, all of these organic materials can become a source of nutrients for bacteria. This allows them to survive and multiply on the paper, thus creating mould damage. In addition, In addition, there are black mold, penicillium, aspergillus, and sporophore that have a destructive effect on paper cultural relics.
3.Natural disaster damage.
(1) The temperature of hazards, As a research shows that in the range of 38 ℃ to 98 ℃, When rise the 10 ℃, the aging speed of paper increased by 1.8 times.
(2) The hazards of humidity, paper is too wet or dry will affect the mechanical strength and durability of paper. Humid environment will accelerate the aging of paper, And too much moisture will promote the growth of various types of harmful organisms reproduction.
(3) The light of damage, ultraviolet light on paper relics of the fiber structure is quite large, it can make the paper in the cellulose branch broken bonds, photo-oxidation reaction and photodegradation reaction, the strength of the decline, and ultimately damage the paper relics.
(4) The hazards of harmful gas , industrial acidic gases and carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, etc., if absorbed by the wet paper will produce chemical reactions, so that the paper fibres hydrolysis and oxidation, accelerating the destruction of paper.
The methods of protect paper heritage
1. Insect removal
(1) physical method. Commonly used physical methods are low temperature, high temperature insecticide method, is to control the environment in a higher or lower temperature level for a period of time, in order to achieve the purpose of killing insects. The temperature range is 40°C to 45°C or -10°C to 8°C. In addition, pests can be killed by reducing the oxygen content of the environment by filling the environment with a certain amount of inert gas or by putting in a deaerating agent to reduce the oxygen content, which will suffocate the pests after a period of time.
(2) Chemical methods. The more commonly used method is fumigation,It is mean that in closed conditions, using chemical fumigants to penetrate into the pest's body in a state of poisonous gas branches, so that its poisoning and death.
2. Removal of mould
(1) Sterilisation. Mould poses a deadly threat to paper artefacts, and pest removal, sterilisation is also divided into physical and chemical methods. Physical methods are cryogenic freezing method, anoxia method, microwave radiation method, r-ray irradiation method. However, they have the disadvantage of being more technical, costly and difficult to implement in practice. Chemical methods are fumigation method,the more commonly used is formaldehyde fumigation method, it has the advantage of cheap, safer to use at room temperature, equipment requirements are not high, the use of environmental conditions are also easier to achieve (temperature of 20 ℃ or more, relative humidity of 70 ℃ or more).
(2) To remove mouldy spots. Available 0.5% potassium permanganate solution, with a brush coated in mould stains, to be potassium permanganate solution from red to teal, about 15 minutes, and then coated with 2% oxalic acid solution, so that the parts coated with potassium permanganate from the teal gradually changed to white. When the tea colour fades, immediately wash with water to wash away the residual chemicals to avoid damage to the paper relics.
3. Create a good collection environment
(1) Make control the temperature and humidity. The temperature and humidity requirements of the repository of paper cultural relics: when in winter indoor keep 12 ℃ ~ 18 ℃, not more than 25 ℃ in summer; relative humidity is maintained at 50 ℃ ~ 65 ℃. 24 hours temperature change of not more than 2 ℃ ~ 5 ℃, humidity change of not more than 3 ℃ ~ 5 ℃.
(2) Anti-light. Ultraviolet light has a great destructive effect on paper, so the depot in the mining to eliminate ultraviolet light in various light sources, or the use of professional lighting equipment without ultraviolet radiation.
(3)Ventilation.The warehouse should have a good ventilation system in order to reduce the damaging effects of harmful gases on paper relics.
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