The importance of lighting to museum exhibits

Museum exhibits are important artefacts for the study of ancient and modern civilisations, and every detail is of inestimable value. In order to truly restore the material, colour, technology and texture of the exhibits, lighting plays a vital role in museum display showcase. Through multi-level, contrasting and orderly lighting configuration, accurately reproduce the historical status and artistic value of cultural relics, reflecting the core competitiveness of museum curation, but also the core task of museum lighting. However, if the lighting lamps light restitution quality is different, colour temperature selection deviation, improper lighting arrangement, it will lead to the appearance of cultural relics reflected in the eyes of the audience and the colour of the appearance and colour of the off-colour, ambiguous, dull and other problems, thus making the original visual information a large number of distortions.

In museum lighting design, the accurate presentation of lighting is particularly important for the display of exhibits colour and detail. The following are several important lighting factors that are crucial to the design and lighting quality of museum display showcases:

1. High colour rendering light: Museum lighting is a cross project between technology and history, art, aesthetics, physiology and psychology. The colour rendering of the lights directly affects the performance of the hue and saturation of the exhibits' colours. High colour rendering index lighting can more realistically restore the original appearance and colour of historical artifacts. In displaying colour fabrics, multi-colour exhibits and other places with high requirements for colour recognition, light sources with a general colour rendering index (Ra) of not less than 90 should be used; for places with general requirements for colour recognition, light sources with a general colour rendering index of not less than 80 can be used as lighting sources. With the enhancement of lighting quality requirements, you can use the IES-TM30 light quality evaluation method issued by the International Commission on Illumination, the introduction of the Fleur-de-Lis index Rf and the colour gamut index Rg, to more comprehensively meet the needs of the museum on the high degree of reproduction of the display.

2.Colour temperature selection: In museum lighting design, the presentation of exhibits' colours and materials is particularly important. The colour temperature directly affects the audience's feeling of space and environment, as well as the understanding and cognition of cultural relics and artworks. Different materials, types and colours of cultural relics exhibits have the most suitable colour temperature. Therefore, the choice of lighting colour temperature needs to be decided according to the characteristics of the exhibits and the theme of the exhibition, not simply adopting the ambient colour temperature of the artist's creation. Choosing the right colour temperature can shape the atmosphere of the scene and allow the audience to better appreciate the essence of the exhibits.

3. Multi-angle accurate light distribution: exhibits are displayed in different forms, requiring different angles and light types of light configuration to highlight the details of the exhibits and make them lifelike. In museums and art galleries, the exhibits have various forms and volumes, usually requiring extremely narrow beams, narrow beams, flood light, large flood light, elliptical flood light, wall wash and other angles and light types. Museum lighting fixtures should be flexible and adaptable, according to the needs of different exhibits exhibition, with different angles of light to achieve the best display effect, better outline the details of the exhibits, so that the exhibits come to life. In the vertical wall exhibits lighting, should be pay attention to the exhibits and the relationship between the light type, unless the deliberate design, small exhibits should not use too large an angle of the light type, resulting in too large a light spot, the exhibits around the exhibition wall is too bright, limiting the audience's appreciation of the work; and for large exhibits, if you use a beam angle is too small, in the frame of the illumination is not uniform, but also the audience will not be able to fully comprehend the essence of the work.

4. Showing effect and casting angle and height: the installation position of lamps and lanterns directly affects the exhibition effect. Reasonable projection angle and height can present the best display effect. Different projection angles (front, side, top, back, 45 degree side) will show different effects. The installation height of the lamps also affects the size and intensity of the light spot projected on the exhibits. Therefore, when lighting arrangement, it is necessary to consider the characteristics of the exhibits and choose the appropriate light projection angle and height to achieve the best display effect.

To sum up, the role of lighting in museum display showcase is crucial. Through high colour rendering lighting, suitable colour temperature selection, multi-angle accurate light distribution and proper lighting of exhibition showcase, museums are able to better display precious relics and let audiences fully appreciate the charm of culture and art.

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