The environmental control requirements of the museum cultural relic showcase

2022/08/09
Author:DG Master-museum showcases manufacturers

The temperature and humidity of the air temperature and humidity are the most basic and frequent factor in the preservation environment of the collected cultural relics. They are the two basic factors that directly affect all physics, chemistry and biological effects. 1.

1 Temperatures are generally not obvious that the air temperature in the museum room shows as a single factor on cultural relics materials is not obvious, but because there are factors such as light, various gas and other factors in the environment. At the same time, the temperature has the role of accelerating chemistry in the subsequent reaction. According to the approximate rules of Van n’t HOFF, for the general reaction, the temperature increases to the original 2 to 4 times every 10 ° C.

In addition, it is worth noting that temperature changes can cause relative humidity changes, which will affect cultural relics. 1.2 Compared with temperature, the relative humidity of the museum has a greater impact on cultural relics.

The changes in relative humidity will have a different degree of impact on the preservation of most collected cultural relics. Effect of humidity on organic materials and cultural relics: The commonality of organic materials and cultural relics is that it contains a certain amount of water. When the external air humidity is high, they absorb water, causing changes in hydrolysis, weight gain, volume expansion and other changes.

When the air humidity of the outside world is low, they release the internal water and cause contraction, dry cracks and other changes. Different organic materials have different responses to relative humidity. Dynamic, plant fiber materials, hair, cotton, cotton, hemp, paper, bamboo and wood, etc.

are more sensitive to humidity changes, especially silk fabrics and calligraphy and painting. The effect of humidity on the cultural relics of inorganic materials: The humid environment is very unfavorable to the preservation of most metal cultural relics. In humid air, bronze and iron wares will have chemical or electrochemical corrosion, especially when there is chloride, the rust speed will be faster.

In the high humidity environment, the effect of strong light and ozone may be slowly oxidized. The humid environment will also corrode the surface of the ancient glassware white or gray. Changes in temperature and humidity may cause the glass surface of the porcelain surface to be blurred, losing luster or decomposition.

High humidity is also a necessary condition for microorganism. In high humidity environments, organic materials cultural relics are good nutrition sources of mold, which indirectly leads to damage to cultural relic materials. Light is in the museum.

Although light is essential for people to study and visit, it is harmful to the preservation of cultural relics. It is especially in the ultraviolet rays in the light waves. Studies have shown that light has a destructive effect on all organic materials and cultural relics, causing their surface deterioration and accelerating this deterioration reaction.

In addition to its thermal effects on cultural relics materials, which can accelerate the chemical reactions, it is more important to reflect the optical chemical response. Studies have shown that ultraviolet rays are the most important light radiation that causes optical chemical reactions. In addition, it is worth noting that the visible light of some bands may also damage the optical reactions of organic materials and cultural relics through the sensitivity and accumulation effect.

The essence of photochemical reactions is that light radiation provides the activation energy of chemical reactions. When the cultural relics composed of organic materials are radiated by light, especially the radiation of ultraviolet rays, the molecular chain will be interrupted, or a series of photorexial reactions will cause the molecular structure of the organic material compounds under the action of oxygen in the air, which will occur. Variety.

This light aging reaction may have the impact on organic materials and cultural relics: first, appearance changes, such as color change, fading, spots, cracking, deformation, etc.; Second, physical changes, such as the solubility, proportion, and hygroscopicity of materials The degree of light transmittability may change; third, the changes in mechanical performance, such as the decline in performance such as strength, folding resistance; fourth, the change of molecular structure, such as changes in the interconsistencies and the cross -linking, molecular weight, molecular weight Be smaller. There are many types of air pollutants and air pollutants.

According to the nature of pollutants, they are divided into chemical, physical, and biological. Here we mainly talk about chemical pollutants that have a serious impact on cultural relics in the indoor air in the museum. According to its existence state, it can be roughly divided into two categories: gaseous (including vapor) and gas -soluble gum.

The main harm to cultural relics and materials is mainly acidic gas (such as sulfide, nitrogen oxide, halide, certain organic compounds, etc.) and dust, followed by oxidant (such as ozone) and air -soluble oscillating. Acid gas can corrode metal, especially when combining with oxidant.

Acid gases can also erode cellulose and dyes, and can also make the leather crispy. Sulfur dioxide is the most concerned acid gas, mainly from the museum outdoor air pollution. The dangers of dust on collected cultural relics are mainly manifested in three aspects: First, adhesion, dust can cause paper adhesion.

The second is adsorption effect, which can adsorb and concentrate sulfur dioxide and other gases. The third is to breed mold. Due to the consolidation ability of dust on water vapor, it also creates conditions for the growth of fungi.

The erosion of microorganisms can often be completed through dust. The ozone in the museum pollutants as an oxidant can play a role in oxidation and corrosion on cultural relics. It exists in the reaction of nitride -containing compounds and organic objects, forming many higher corrosive gas and particle components.

Vitality solution refers to air pollutants that use liquid or solid as a dispersion phase and gas as a dispersion medium. Its main components are acids, salt, and heavy metal dust. Their harm to cultural relics is mainly to provide acid hydrolysis catalysts and optical oxidants and causes.

Dust is also a form of existence of air -soluble glue. The sources of indoor air pollutants in the museum not only have pollutants transmitted from outdoor or from other indoor rooms, but also directly emitted pollutants and pollutants generated through the chemical reactions of indoor components. Therefore, the concentration of an air pollutant indoor indoor indoor indoor is determined by factors such as outdoor pollution level, air exchange rate, indoor chemical reaction or the rate of consumption of pollutants, and the rate of pollutants from the indoor surface.

In practice, if the display and storage measures are improper, the erosion of the pollutants may be eroded. Therefore, it should pay attention to the indoor indoor of the internal decoration of the museum building, the cultural relic warehouse, the exhibition cabinet, etc. Pollutant.

For example, a lot of wood used for decoration may produce organic acids (methic acid, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, and even hydrogen sulfide, etc.). , It may be softened to salt by the action of organic acid vapor.

Polyethylene plastic (PVC) and some chemical fiber fabrics used in collections and exhibitions will produce chloride, which can be corroded to metal cultural relics. In addition to the destruction of the above -mentioned physical and chemical factors, the collection of biological hazard collections will also be subject to some microorganisms and insect biological hazards under certain conditions. 4.

1 Microorganisms with harmful microorganisms to cultural relics are a small part of microorganisms, mainly bacteria, threading bacteria, mold, etc. These microorganisms are characterized by survival under the general conditions of cultural relic preservation. The enzymes that use cultural relic materials as nutritional bases, and can secrete the destruction of cultural relic materials.

The destruction of microorganisms on fibrous cultural relics (cotton, hemp, paper, and wood): Most of these cultural relic materials contain cellulose, starch, gelatin, etc., and microorganisms secrete the enzymes that can break down these cultural relics, so that the cultural relics will be mildew and rotten. It not only affects the appearance of cultural relics, but also reduces the mechanical strength of cultural relics materials.

Microbial destruction of protein cultural relics (silk, hair, leather): such cultural relics are eroded by microorganisms, causing mildew of cultural relic materials, and mildew of the surface of the cultural relics after the mildew Decompire, release gases such as H2S and NH3, so that organic matter is stinky. The decomposition of protein also reduces the surface gloss and strength of such cultural relics, and the surface is sticky. Microbial erosion mechanism of metal cultural relics: In the air containing dust and water vapor, there may be microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi.

Due to rough surfaces, metal cultural relics are easy to adsorb the dust and water vapor in the air, which contains a large amount of organic acid metabolism Products, these acids accept electrons generated by metal corrosion and promote metal corrosion. In addition, some microorganisms have the ability to accept electronics, which causes metal cultural relics to corrode. Metals in humid air often occur at the same time electrochemical corrosion and microbial corrosion, which will promote each other and accelerate corrosion.

Therefore, the humid and dirty environment is very unfavorable for preservation of metal cultural relics. 4.2 Cultural Relics Pest Cultural Relics and Cultural Relics is an important factor in premature damage to organic matter cultural relics.

There are two aspects of its hazards: one is to direct harm, that is, insects eat cultural relic materials, which make the cultural relic holes cluster, incomplete incompleteness, decreased mechanical properties, and changes in physical and chemical properties; the second is indirect hazard Leave a stain and become a new source of microorganisms erosion of cultural relics. The larvae of harmful insects have the most harmful effect on cultural relic materials, and larvae are usually parasitic inside the cultural relics materials and have great concealment. Once the cultural relics materials occur, the degree of observation may have caused irreparable recovery at this time.

loss. Therefore, in order to prevent the cultural relics from the harm of insects, positive preventive measures must be taken. The conclusion should be pointed out that in reality, the natural damage of the cultural relics of collections is not a separate effect of environmental factors, but often several environmental factors are related to each other.

Therefore, in actual work, it should be comprehensively analyzed and considered comprehensive consideration. This article mainly summarizes the process of various environmental factors and cultural relic materials and the effects of cultural relic materials and materials of the museum showcase. There are still many problems that need to be deeper research, such as the study of the quantitative relationship of the corrosion of cultural relics, the quantitative relationship of environmental factors, the best environmental standard study of the museum cultural relic preservation, the research of the control of the museum cultural relic preservation environment, etc.

The ultimate goal of these studies is to improve the environmental relic preservation environment of the museum through large environmental governance and small environment control, and slow down the natural corrosion damage of collected cultural relics. .

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