This information is taken from the "Chinese Cultural Relics" to see the article "New Perspective of recognition concepts in the restoration of cultural relics in the restoration of cultural relics" written by "China Cultural Relics" on July 8, 2011. The author is not limited to the concept of modern cultural relics protection, but combines the actual situation of Chinese cultural relics, and puts forward a new view of recognizable concepts. It is believed that the restoration of cultural relics should not be limited to "consistent consistency from a distance, different from each other".
The principle is "the information should. After reading it, I can't help but want to talk about the shallow understanding of the concept of cultural relics protection and repair here. I.
The same similarities and restoration of the author have participated in the textile training class of "Sino-Japanese-Korean Cooperation Silk Road along the Silk Road" textile training course held at the Chinese Heritage Research Institute in August to December last year. In this training course, the author has a systematic understanding of theoretical knowledge of cultural relics protection and restoration. At the same time, I have mastered a certain amount of textile and cultural relic restoration technology.
In the process of learning technology, I also have some thoughts on the theory of cultural relics protection and restoration. During the study class, because it was the first contact with cultural protection, some students who specialized in the restoration of cultural relics asked the difference between "protection" and "repair". Some students said that protection and repair are actually the same thing.
Do not cause damage, usually apply together. But in my opinion, protection and repair are not exactly the same, but different. "Protection" and "repair" are included in the concept of protection, but in a narrow sense, they are two different stages in the field of cultural relics protection.
In the definition of cultural relics protection disciplines, the significance of protection and repair is significantly different. "Protection" has two meanings: first, control the environment, minimize the damage of collections and specimens; second, inhibit damage and make it in a stable state to prevent further damage. "Repair" is the continuation of the second step in the concept of concept, that is, when the protection processing appears insufficient, the repair makes the collection reach the state of being displayed and the purpose of extending the life of the cultural relics to extend the life of the cultural relics.
The earliest theory of cultural relics protection and restoration was proposed by Italians Brandi. In his book "The Theory of Cultural Relics": "The so -called repair is to maintain the materiality of a certain item. The preservation, protection and treatment of cultural value.
"And divide the repair practice into three directions: preventive repair, protective repair and preventing sexual repair. In fact, the concept of restoration here is the concept of protecting the broad sense of our country. What we usually call cultural relics also includes three aspects, namely preventive protection, maintenance protection and repair protection.
Preventive protection refers to effective monitoring of the cultural relic preservation environment; maintenance protection refers to the maintenance of daily cultural relics; and repair protection is to repair and restore the cultural relics body. These three aspects are parallel for cultural relics, and there is no prescribed before and after order. For example, for a broken bronze ware, the first thing we need to do is repair protection, and then preventive protection and maintenance.
For intact jade, it is important to do preventive protection and maintenance Sexual protection. 2. The understanding of the concept of protection of Chinese and Western protection.
The concept of protection and restoration of modern cultural relics advocated by Brandi comes from the protection practice of western cultural relics. Most of them are more Western buildings, oil paintings, sculptures and other cultural relics. Reverse and recognizable three principles.
However, there are differences in the recognition of cultural relics in China and the West, and it is probably not the best way to guide Chinese work to guide Chinese work completely. The author believes that China's cultural relics protection and restoration concept must abide by the applicable international standards, and specific analysis of specific issues must be analyzed. Repair and protection should be based on the long -term preservation of cultural relics.
Restore the true appearance of the cultural relics. The minimum intervention principle is suitable for any country any country, and the East and the West have similar views, that is, the historical information contained in the cultural relics is not repaired as much as possible. This is particularly obvious in the Japanese cultural relic repair industry.
They rarely do great repair actions to cultural relics. For example, for the protection of a silk coverage, Japanese teachers can only do cleaning, flat, and packaging; while Chinese teachers need to move the needle line to fix, not only to play a good effect, but also the visual perception is great. The principle of reversibility means that the materials used in the repair process must be removed, so that the use of new materials and new processes in the future will not cause damage to cultural relics.
But in the understanding of the principle of recognition, there is a big difference. If some comrades are superstitious about Brandi’s theory, they believe that the repair part should be completely different from the cultural relics body, which can be recognized at a glance. Therefore, there is a crushed pottery for repair with white gypsum.
Gong Mengting believes that the traditional Chinese restoration skills belong to art restoration. The integration of repairing parts and the body of the utensils is the state of repairing the master's pursuit. The author agrees.
The reason why repairing the master's skills is that the work they repaired reaches the true level of falseness, so that people can enjoy the perfect feeling visually. "Recognition" is not necessarily recognized by the naked eye. Even the fixing works that are integrated can be "identified" with technology instruments.
Therefore, the grasp of the principle of recognition cannot be limited to the naked eye recognition of "consistent and different from the distance from a distance", but on the basis of trying to retain all historical information contained in the cultural relics as much as possible, try to use superb skills to restore the true relics of cultural relics as much as possible. , Perfect true face. 3.
The importance of preventive protection this year is the first year of the "Twelfth Five -Year Plan". According to the "Twelfth Five -Year Plan" Plan for the Development of the National Cultural Relics, the protection of cultural relics in China during the "Twelfth Five -Year Plan" period must be transformed from rescue protection to preventive protection. This conveys a clear information, that is, the state began to change the strategy in the protection of cultural relics, that is, the financial resources from preventive protection.
The first proposal of the concept of "preventive protection" was an international seminar on art protection in Roman, Italy in 1930. The conference has reached the consensus of scientific protection of cultural relics internationally, which is a milestone significance for the protection of cultural relics. Preventive protection is to monitor the environment of cultural relic preservation to make the environment in a state that is conducive to the protection of cultural relics, so as to achieve the purpose of protecting cultural relics.
The cultural relics preservation environment includes two aspects: one is the cultural relic warehouse, and the other is the exhibition hall. No matter which environment, it is necessary to measure the advantages and disadvantages of the environment from the aspects of temperature and humidity, light, air pollution, and biological effects. According to the "Trial Specifications for the Preservation Environment of the Museum Collection", the requirements of the cultural relics of different textures are different, and the organic cultural relics are relatively lower than that of the inorganic cultural relics.
For example, the environmental temperature of metal cultural relics is 20 ° C, and the relative humidity is kept at 0-40%, while the relative humidity of the environment of organic cultural relics such as filamented cotton and hemp textiles will reach 50%to 60%; Lax, while the lightness of silk caoped cotton and hemp textiles is less than 50 Lax; in addition, organic cultural relics such as silk caoped cotton and hemp textiles are more likely to be affected by pests and microorganisms, so the requirements for the environment are higher. The protection of cultural relics must first start with preventive protection. Therefore, the state proposes to build a standardized cultural relic warehouse, and the cultural relics of different textures should be classified in different requirements of the warehouses.
The warehouse is equipped with standard collection cabinets, constant temperature and humidity systems, security, fire protection facilities and other cultural relics protection equipment. Fire, anti -theft, insect -proof, ventilation, dehumidification effects, so that it is conducive to the scientific protection of cultural relics in the museum. Preventive protection is done well, and cultural relics protection personnel can be repaired as little as possible, and cultural relics can be damaged at a minimum degree.